[Home ] [Archive]   [ فارسی ]  
:: Volume 22, Issue 6 (Scientific Journal of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences 2018) ::
SJKU 2018, 22(6): 96-106 Back to browse issues page
Evaluation of heavy metals in tobacco and hookah water used in coffee houses in Sanandaj city in 2017
Vahid Yousefinejad Dr1, Borhan Mansouri Dr2, Zana Ramezani 3, Neshat Mohammadzadeh 4, Mitra Akhlaghi Dr5
1- Assistant Professor Liver and Digestive Research Center, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran.
2- Assistant Professor Medical Toxicology and Drug Abuse Research Center (MTDRC), Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran.
3- Student Research Committee, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran , zana.ramezani@muk.ac.ir
4- Student Research Committee, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran
5- Associate Professor Department of Forensic Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Abstract:   (1482 Views)
Background and Aim: Tobacco use in various ways such as cigarettes, hookahs, and nas is one of the most important and preventable factors in illness, disability and premature death in the world. Considering the importance of hookah consumption and its impact on the health of people in the community, studies in this regard will be significant. In this regard, the aim of present study was to determine the levels of heavy metals (zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), and mercury (Hg)) in the tobacco and hookah water used in cafes in Sanandaj city in 2017.
Material and Methods: In this descriptive-analytical (cross sectional) study, two popular and common brands of hookah tobacco were selected in Sanandaj (Crystal and Palm), and each of the brands was evaluated for three flavors (dassib, lemon, and mint). A total of 36 tobacco samples (before and after use) and 36 samples of water (before and after use) were investigated. The samples were prepared by acid digestion and finally, the concentrations of metals (Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, As, and Hg) was measured by atomic absorption.
Results: The results of this study showed that the highest and lowest concentrations of metals were related to Zn (11/05 µg/g) and As (1/35 µg/g) respectively. In general, according to the results, the order of the metals was Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd > As. The results showed that there was a significant difference between Pb in burnt and unburned tobacco, and Pb in burnt tobacco is more than unburned tobacco. In contrast, no difference in the mean of the other metals before and after use has not been made. The results of comparison of metals before and after the use of hookahs in hookah water showed that there was a significant difference in Cu, Zn, and Pb. Moreover, there is no significant difference between the two brands in terms of metals as well as the different taste of the tobacco (p> 0/05).
Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the concentration of metals in tobacco samples distributed in Sanandaj was higher than the standards of WHO. The values indicated were high levels of metals in aromatic tobacco samples, which also require more attention to protect people's health and ways to reduce tobacco use.
Keywords: Heavy metals, Cadmium, Lead, Arsenic, Zinc, Copper, hookahs, tobacco.
 
Received: Jul 31, 2017     Accepted: Nov 6, 2017
Keywords: Heavy metals, Cadmium, Lead, Arsenic, Zinc, Copper, hookahs, tobacco.
Full-Text [PDF 4139 kb]   (290 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: General
Received: 2018/01/24 | Accepted: 2018/01/24 | Published: 2018/01/24
Send email to the article author

Add your comments about this article
Your username or Email:

CAPTCHA code



XML   Persian Abstract   Print



Volume 22, Issue 6 (Scientific Journal of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences 2018) Back to browse issues page
مجله علمی دانشگاه علوم پزشکی کردستان Scientific Journal of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences
مجله علمی دانشگاه علوم پزشکی کردستان Scientific Journal of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences
Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.05 seconds with 30 queries by YEKTAWEB 3742