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:: Scientific Journal of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences - No 2, 2022 ::
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Investigation of cadmium toxic effects on kidney function in smoker and nonsmoker prisoners and its relationships with exchange air systems capacity in the Maragheh city prison
Aziz Azizbagi1 , Ebrahim Mohammadi1 , Rasoul Nassiri Kalmarzi1 , Bijan Nouri1 , Afshin Maleki 2
1- Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences
2- Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences , maleki43@yahoo.com
Abstract:   (92 Views)
Background and Aim: Cadmium is one of the heavy metals that cause a lot of health dangers if human being exposed for the long times. One of the most reasons for exposure to cadmium is the entrance of this metal from soil to tobacco plant and then the consumption of the product (Toton) by individuals.
Materials and Methods: In this study, the toxic effects of cadmium on kidney performance of smokers and non-smokers and the association with ventilation systems at Maragheh prison was investigated. In this analytical-descriptive study including 90 subjects, after completing the questionnaire and providing the necessary training, 50 ml of morning urine samples were taken. After preparing the samples, the amount of cadmium was measured using atomic absorption spectrometer equiped with furnace. Special weight, creatinine, protein, albumin, urea and glucose was measured in a clinical laboratory. The condition of ventilation systems in the living quarters of all three groups was also examined. Spearman correlation coefficient was used to determine the relationship between cadmium metal concentrations.
Results: The highest rate of excretion on cadmium per creatinine, protein per creatinine, albumin per creatinine, and glucose in smoking groups who have not ventilation systems in their living quarters were observed. In this group, there was a significant relationship between the ratio of cadmium to creatinine with protein to creatinine, albumin to creatinine, urea and glucose (P < 0.05), while in the control group without ventilation, this relationship was significant only with urinary glucose excretion (P < 0.05), and was not significant with the other variables   (P ≥ 0.05).
Conclusion: Exposure to cadmium metal through cigarette smoke can directly and indirectly affect kidney function and lead to increased excretion of protein, albumin, urea and glucose. This effect is also affected by indoor ventilation systems, and it can be said that the presence of proper ventilation systems reduces exposure to cigarette smoke and consequently exposure to cadmium, thus it reduces the harmful effects of cadmium on all exposed individuals.
Keywords: Cigarette, Cadmium, Kidney, Prison, Ventilation system
     
Type of Study: Original Research | Subject: Environmental Health Engineering
Received: 2021/01/8 | Accepted: 2021/07/3
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Ethics code: IR.MUK.REC. 1397.227
Clinical trials code: -


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مجله علمی دانشگاه علوم پزشکی کردستان Scientific Journal of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences
مجله علمی دانشگاه علوم پزشکی کردستان Scientific Journal of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences
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