:: Scientific Journal of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences - No 2, 2022 ::
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Investigation of cadmium toxic effects on kidney function in smoker and nonsmoker prisoners and its relationships with exchange air systems capacity in the Maragheh city prison
Aziz Azizbagi1 , Ebrahim Mohammadi2 , Rasoul Nassiri Kalmarzi3 , Bijan Nouri4 , Afshin Maleki 5
1- Student Research Committee, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran
2- Environmental Health Research Center, Research Institute for Health Development, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran
3- Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran
4- Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Faculty of Medicine, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran.
5- Environmental Health Research Center, Research Institute for Health Development, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran , maleki43@yahoo.com
Abstract:   (223 Views)
Background and Aim: Cadmium is one of the heavy metals that cause a lot of health dangers if human being exposed to it for the long times. In this study, the toxic effects of cadmium on kidney performance of smokers and non-smokers and the association with ventilation systems at Maragheh prison was investigated.
Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was performed on 90 prisoners in three groups of smokers, non-smokers with smokers’ prisoner cellmate and witness who were non-smokers while all of the members in groups had at least 4 years of imprisonment. In order to take urine samples, individuals were given a sterile 50 ml polyethylene container and the necessary training was given to people about preparing the first morning administration sample. From the prepared urine samples, 25 ml to measure cadmium was poured into another sterile container which was polyethylene and sent to a specialized laboratory which restricted by temperature conditions (4° C), meanwhile, cadmium urine sample furnace was measured with The atomic absorption rate of the graphite. The remaining 25 ml of the urine sample was sent to the medical diagnostic laboratory to check renal factors and the parameters of urine specific gravity, creatinine, protein, albumin, glucose and urea of ​​the urine sample were assessed by a Hitachi auto analyzer. The placement of the ventilation system in the living quarters of all three groups had been reviewed.
Results: The highest value of excretion on cadmium per creatinine, protein per creatinine, albumin per creatinine, and glucose in smoking group without ventilation systems in their living quarters were observed. In this group, there was a significant relationship between the ratio of cadmium to creatinine with protein to creatinine, albumin to creatinine, urea and glucose (P < 0.05), while in the control group without ventilation, this relationship was significant only with urinary glucose excretion (P < 0.05), and was not significant with the other variables   (P ≥ 0.05).
Conclusion: Exposure to cadmium metal through cigarette smoke can directly and indirectly affect kidney function and lead to increased excretion of protein, albumin, urea and glucose. This effect is also affected by indoor ventilation systems, and it can be said that the presence of proper ventilation systems reduces exposure to cigarette smoke and consequently exposure to cadmium, thus it reduces the harmful effects of cadmium on all exposed individuals.
Keywords: Cigarette, Cadmium, Kidney, Prison, Ventilation system
     
Type of Study: Original Research | Subject: Environmental Health Engineering
Received: 2021/01/8 | Accepted: 2021/07/3

Ethics code: IR.MUK.REC. 1397.227
Clinical trials code: -


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